The Pantanal is said to be a typical tropical wetland and the largest wetland of our Universe. The Pantanal stretches over the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Bolivia and Paraguay of Brazil that covers an area of about more than 100,000 square kilometers. It is the home to a number of sub-regional ecosystems having distinct geological as well as ecological characteristics.
More than 80 percent of the floodplains of Pantanal remain submerged under water in the rainy months and biologically diverse group of aquatic plants and animal species are found in this region. Pantanal floodplain ecosystems are described by inundation and desiccation that occur seasonally. [The phases of standing water offer different ecosystem whereas the phases when soils are dry soil and the water table go below the root region offers totally different ecosystems and complex vegetation.
An admixture of plant communities that are found in various region like those Amazonian rainforest plants as well as semi-arid woodland and those of Cerrado savanna vegetation and the Chaco savannas are found in these Pantanal floodplain. The Pantanal ecosystem shelters more than 3500 well known plant species, 1000 species of bird, more than 400 fish species and about 300 mammal species Also it has amazing 9000 different invertebrates species residing in the Pantanal floodplain.
The Pantanal region houses few important conservation areas and essential sanctuaries for preserving their animal, birds and plant community. Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and the SESC Pantanal Private Natural Heritage Reserve are two such areas located in Pantanal floodplain.